Reli:PHP性能分析利器,生成PHP性能火焰图

PHP技术
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2024-03-11

Reli 是一个用PHP编写的采样分析器(或VM状态检查器)。它可以从进程外部读取有关运行PHP脚本的信息。它是一个独立的CLI工具,因此目标程序不需要任何修改。

能做什么?

  • 检测和可视化PHP脚本中的瓶颈。它不仅提供函数级的分析,而且还提供行级或操作码级的解析
  • 即使调用了很多快速函数,也不会产生累积开销的分析,因为这是一个采样分析器
  • 调查bug或性能故障的原因。即使PHP脚本处于无法解释的无响应状态,您也可以使用它来找出它在内部做什么。
  • 查找内存瓶颈或内存泄漏

如何工作?

  • 解析解释器的ELF二进制文件
  • /proc/<pid>/maps读取内存映射
  • 通过FFI使用ptrace(2)process_vm_readv(2)来读取外部进程的内存
  • 分析PHP虚拟机(又名Zend Engine)中的内部数据结构

需求

  • PHP 8.1+(NTS/ZTS)
  • 64bit Linux x86_64
  • 必须启用FFI扩展(编译增加配置--with-ffi
  • 必须启用PCNTL扩展

安装

git clone git@github.com:reliforp/reli-prof.git
cd reli-prof
/usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php /home/www/build/composer.phar install
/usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli

使用

1、获取跟踪配置

www@ShaoBoWan:~/build/reli-prof$ /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli inspector:trace --help
Description:
  periodically get call trace from an outer process or thread

Usage:
  inspector:trace [options] [--] [<cmd> [<args>...]]

Arguments:
  cmd                                        command to execute as a target: either pid (via -p/--pid) or cmd must be specified
  args                                       command line arguments for cmd

Options:
  -p, --pid=PID                              process id
  -d, --depth[=DEPTH]                        max depth
  -s, --sleep-ns[=SLEEP-NS]                  nanoseconds between traces (default: 1000 * 1000 * 10)
  -r, --max-retries[=MAX-RETRIES]            max retries on contiguous errors of read (default: 10)
  -S, --stop-process[=STOP-PROCESS]          stop the target process while reading its trace (default: off)
      --php-regex[=PHP-REGEX]                regex to find the php binary loaded in the target process
      --libpthread-regex[=LIBPTHREAD-REGEX]  regex to find the libpthread.so loaded in the target process
      --php-version[=PHP-VERSION]            php version (auto|v7[0-4]|v8[0123]) of the target (default: auto)
      --php-path[=PHP-PATH]                  path to the php binary (only needed in tracing chrooted ZTS target)
      --libpthread-path[=LIBPTHREAD-PATH]    path to the libpthread.so (only needed in tracing chrooted ZTS target)
  -t, --template[=TEMPLATE]                  template name (phpspy|phpspy_with_opcode|json_lines) (default: phpspy)
  -o, --output=OUTPUT                        path to write output from this tool (default: stdout)
  -h, --help                                 Display help for the given command. When no command is given display help for the list command
  -q, --quiet                                Do not output any message
  -V, --version                              Display this application version
      --ansi|--no-ansi                       Force (or disable --no-ansi) ANSI output
  -n, --no-interaction                       Do not ask any interactive question
  -v|vv|vvv, --verbose                       Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal output, 2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug

2、守护模式启动

www@ShaoBoWan:~/build/reli-prof$ /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli inspector:daemon --help
Description:
  concurrently get call traces from processes whose command-lines match a given regex

Usage:
  inspector:daemon [options]

Options:
  -P, --target-regex=TARGET-REGEX            regex to find target processes which have matching command-line (required)
  -T, --threads[=THREADS]                    number of workers (default: 8)
  -d, --depth[=DEPTH]                        max depth
  -s, --sleep-ns[=SLEEP-NS]                  nanoseconds between traces (default: 1000 * 1000 * 10)
  -r, --max-retries[=MAX-RETRIES]            max retries on contiguous errors of read (default: 10)
  -S, --stop-process[=STOP-PROCESS]          stop the target process while reading its trace (default: off)
      --php-regex[=PHP-REGEX]                regex to find the php binary loaded in the target process
      --libpthread-regex[=LIBPTHREAD-REGEX]  regex to find the libpthread.so loaded in the target process
      --php-version[=PHP-VERSION]            php version (auto|v7[0-4]|v8[0123]) of the target (default: auto)
      --php-path[=PHP-PATH]                  path to the php binary (only needed in tracing chrooted ZTS target)
      --libpthread-path[=LIBPTHREAD-PATH]    path to the libpthread.so (only needed in tracing chrooted ZTS target)
  -t, --template[=TEMPLATE]                  template name (phpspy|phpspy_with_opcode|json_lines) (default: phpspy)
  -o, --output=OUTPUT                        path to write output from this tool (default: stdout)
  -h, --help                                 Display help for the given command. When no command is given display help for the list command
  -q, --quiet                                Do not output any message
  -V, --version                              Display this application version
      --ansi|--no-ansi                       Force (or disable --no-ansi) ANSI output
  -n, --no-interaction                       Do not ask any interactive question
  -v|vv|vvv, --verbose                       Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal output, 2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug

案例

这里跟踪一个webman框架进程

www@ShaoBoWan:~/build/webman01$ php start.php status
Workerman[start.php] status 
----------------------------------------------GLOBAL STATUS----------------------------------------------------
Workerman version:4.0.37          PHP version:8.0.7
start time:2024-01-01 00:19:33   run 0 days 0 hours   
load average: 0.07, 0.12, 0.98   event-loop:\Workerman\Events\Event
2 workers       3 processes
worker_name  exit_status      exit_count
webman       0                0
monitor      0                0
----------------------------------------------PROCESS STATUS---------------------------------------------------
pid memory  listening           worker_name  connections send_fail timers  total_request qps    status
2184553 0.65M   http://0.0.0.0:8787 webman       0           0         0       0             0      [idle]
2184554 0.65M   http://0.0.0.0:8787 webman       0           0         0       0             0      [idle]
2184555 0.57M   none                monitor      0           0         1       0             0      [idle]
----------------------------------------------PROCESS STATUS---------------------------------------------------
Summary 0M      -                   -            0           0         1       0             0      [Summary]

1、跟踪脚本

/usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli i:trace -- php -r "fgets(STDIN);"

0 fgets <internal>:-1
1 <main> Command line code:1

0 fgets <internal>:-1
1 <main> Command line code:1

...

2、附加到正在运行的进程

sudo /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli i:trace -p 2184553

[sudo] password for www: 
0 EventBase::loop <internal>:-1
1 Workerman\Events\Event::loop /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Events/Event.php:193
2 Workerman\Worker::run /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Worker.php:2435
3 Workerman\Worker::forkOneWorkerForLinux /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Worker.php:1555
4 Workerman\Worker::forkWorkersForLinux /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Worker.php:1397
5 Workerman\Worker::forkWorkers /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Worker.php:1371
6 Workerman\Worker::runAll /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Worker.php:549
7 <main> /home/www/build/webman01/start.php:112

...

3、获取进程内存地址

sudo /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli i:eg -p 2184553

0x55e17fe1b1a0

4、跟踪当前进程正在执行的操作码

如果用户想分析一个真正的CPU受限的应用程序,那么他或她不仅想知道哪一行是慢的,还想知道操作码是什么。在这种情况下,使用 --template=phpspy_with_opcodeinspector:traceinspector:daemon
sudo /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli i:trace --template=phpspy_with_opcode -p 2184553

输出如下所示

0 EventBase::loop <internal>:-1
1 Workerman\Events\Event::loop /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Events/Event.php:193:ZEND_DO_FCALL
2 Workerman\Worker::run /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Worker.php:2435:ZEND_DO_FCALL
3 Workerman\Worker::forkOneWorkerForLinux /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Worker.php:1555:ZEND_DO_FCALL
4 Workerman\Worker::forkWorkersForLinux /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Worker.php:1397:ZEND_DO_FCALL
5 Workerman\Worker::forkWorkers /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Worker.php:1371:ZEND_DO_FCALL
6 Workerman\Worker::runAll /home/www/build/webman01/vendor/workerman/workerman/Worker.php:549:ZEND_DO_FCALL
7 <main> /home/www/build/webman01/start.php:112:ZEND_DO_FCALL

...

当前执行的操作码成为调用堆栈的第一帧。因此,像火焰图这样的可视化跟踪可以显示操作码的使用情况。

出于信息目的,执行操作码也被添加到调用帧的每一端。除了第一个帧,函数调用的操作码(如ZEND_DO_FCALL)应该出现在那里。如果在目标流程中启用了JIT,则此信息可能会稍微不准确。

火焰图

火焰图是由 Brendan Gregg 发明的一种可视化方法,用于展示某一种系统资源或性能指标,是如何定量分布在目标软件里所有的代码路径上的。

  • 系统资源指标可以是 CPU 时间off-CPU 时间内存使用硬盘使用延时等任何其他你能想到的资源。
  • 代码路径 可以定义为目标软件代码中的调用栈轨迹。调用栈轨迹通常是由一组函数调用帧组成的,通常出现在 GDB 命令 bt 的输出中,以及 Python 或 Java 程序的异常错误信息当中。比如下面是一个 Lua 调用栈轨迹的样例:
C:ngx_http_lua_ngx_timer_at
at
cache.lua:43
cache.lua:record_timing
router.lua:338
router.lua:route
v2_routing.lua:1214
v2_routing.lua:route
access_by_lua.lua:130
1、Psalm 静态检查
Psalm 是一个用于PHP的开源静态分析工具,可以帮助识别代码中明显的和难以识别的bug。Psalm既适用于大型遗留代码库,也适用于小型现代代码库,可以帮助防止绝大多数类型相关的runtime 错误,并且能够利用其他语言中流行的安全编码模式。Psalm还可以自动修复发现的许多错误以改进代码。
cd /home/www/build/reli-prof

sudo /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli i:trace -o traces -- /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./vendor/bin/psalm.phar --no-cache

Install the opcache extension to make use of JIT on PHP 8.0+ for a 20%+ performance boost!

Target PHP version: 8.1 (inferred from composer.json) Enabled extensions: ffi.
Scanning files...
Analyzing files...

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░
------------------------------
                              
       No errors found!       
                              
------------------------------

Checks took 7.42 seconds and used 134.539MB of memory
Psalm was able to infer types for 99.9825% of the codebase
以上会输出一个traces文件,大概内容如下
0 array_merge <internal>:-1
1 Psalm\Internal\Analyzer\Statements\Expression\SimpleTypeInferer::handleArrayItem phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Analyzer/Statements/Expression/SimpleTypeInferer.php:398
2 Psalm\Internal\Analyzer\Statements\Expression\SimpleTypeInferer::inferArrayType phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Analyzer/Statements/Expression/SimpleTypeInferer.php:292
3 Psalm\Internal\Analyzer\Statements\Expression\SimpleTypeInferer::infer phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Analyzer/Statements/Expression/SimpleTypeInferer.php:210
4 Psalm\Internal\PhpVisitor\Reflector\ClassLikeNodeScanner::visitClassConstDeclaration phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/PhpVisitor/Reflector/ClassLikeNodeScanner.php:760
5 Psalm\Internal\PhpVisitor\Reflector\ClassLikeNodeScanner::start phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/PhpVisitor/Reflector/ClassLikeNodeScanner.php:451
6 Psalm\Internal\PhpVisitor\ReflectorVisitor::enterNode phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/PhpVisitor/ReflectorVisitor.php:116
7 _HumbugBox427cd2d3980b\PhpParser\NodeTraverser::traverseArray phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/vendor/nikic/php-parser/lib/PhpParser/NodeTraverser.php:176
8 _HumbugBox427cd2d3980b\PhpParser\NodeTraverser::traverseNode phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/vendor/nikic/php-parser/lib/PhpParser/NodeTraverser.php:105
9 _HumbugBox427cd2d3980b\PhpParser\NodeTraverser::traverseArray phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/vendor/nikic/php-parser/lib/PhpParser/NodeTraverser.php:196
10 _HumbugBox427cd2d3980b\PhpParser\NodeTraverser::traverse phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/vendor/nikic/php-parser/lib/PhpParser/NodeTraverser.php:85
11 Psalm\Internal\Scanner\FileScanner::scan phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Scanner/FileScanner.php:51
12 Psalm\Internal\Codebase\Scanner::scanFile phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Codebase/Scanner.php:398
13 Psalm\Internal\Codebase\Scanner::scanAPath phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Codebase/Scanner.php:547
14 Psalm\Internal\Codebase\Scanner::scanFilePaths phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Codebase/Scanner.php:310
15 Psalm\Internal\Codebase\Scanner::scanFiles phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Codebase/Scanner.php:220
16 Psalm\Config::visitComposerAutoloadFiles phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Config.php:1840
17 Psalm\Internal\Analyzer\ProjectAnalyzer::visitAutoloadFiles phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Analyzer/ProjectAnalyzer.php:249
18 Psalm\Internal\Analyzer\ProjectAnalyzer::check phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Analyzer/ProjectAnalyzer.php:335
19 Psalm\Internal\Cli\Psalm::run phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/src/Psalm/Internal/Cli/Psalm.php:272
20 <main> phar:///home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar/psalm:7
21 <main> /home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/psalm/phar/psalm.phar:14
22 <main> /home/www/build/reli-prof/vendor/bin/psalm.phar:119

3、生成火焰图
sudo /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli c:flamegraph <traces  >flame.svg
使用浏览器打开预览flame.svg 图片

下来生成一个webman的

Workerman[start.php] status 
----------------------------------------------GLOBAL STATUS----------------------------------------------------
Workerman version:4.1.9          PHP version:7.4.16
start time:2023-12-22 22:56:56   run 9 days 3 hours   
load average: 0.04, 0.03, 0.09   event-loop:\Workerman\Events\Select
----------------------------------------------PROCESS STATUS---------------------------------------------------
pid memory  listening           worker_name  connections send_fail timers  total_request qps    status
15456 16.42M  http://0.0.0.0:7788 webman       0           0         3       939           0      [idle]
----------------------------------------------PROCESS STATUS---------------------------------------------------
Summary 131M    -                   -            0           0         28      9191          0      [Summary] 

pid = 15456
sudo /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli i:trace -p 15456 -o traces-15456 -- /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./vendor/bin/psalm.phar --no-cache

sudo /usr/local/php-8.2.14/bin/php ./reli c:flamegraph <traces-15456  >flame-15456.svg
一个简单Workerman火焰图到手啦!

其他

google-chrome安装(非必要)

下载

$ wget https://dl.google.com/linux/direct/google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb
--2023-12-31 10:43:53--  https://dl.google.com/linux/direct/google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb
Resolving dl.google.com (dl.google.com)... 120.253.253.225
Connecting to dl.google.com (dl.google.com)|120.253.253.225|:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 104953176 (100M) [application/x-debian-package]
Saving to: ‘google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb’

google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb                  100%[==============================================================================================================================>] 100.09M  11.9MB/s    in 7.4s    

2023-12-31 10:44:00 (13.5 MB/s) - ‘google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb’ saved [104953176/104953176]

安装

sudo apt install ./google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb

FFI

PHP编译安装启用FFI扩展(编译增加配置--with-ffi)时出现错误No package 'libffi' found,检查后发现是因为缺少libffi库文件,利用以下命令安装,解决问题:

sudo apt install libffi-dev

proc_open 无权限问题

PHP Warning:  proc_open(): Exec failed: Permission denied in /home/www/build/reli-prof/src/Command/Converter/FlameGraphCommand.php on line 44
PHP Warning:  proc_open(): Exec failed: Permission denied in /home/www/build/reli-prof/src/Command/Converter/FlameGraphCommand.php on line 55

赋予reli-prof目录执行权限

sudo chmod 0775 -R /home/www/build/reli-prof