Vue3源码解读computed和watch

Vue
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2023-09-09
目录
  • computed
  • ComputedRefImpl
  • 小结:
  • watch

computed

computed和watch在面试中经常被问到他们的区别,那么我们就从源码的实现来看看他们的具体实现

// packages/reactivity/src/computed.ts
export function computed<T>(
  getterOrOptions: ComputedGetter<T> | WritableComputedOptions<T>,
  debugOptions?: DebuggerOptions,
  isSSR = false
) {
  let getter: ComputedGetter<T>
  let setter: ComputedSetter<T>
  const onlyGetter = isFunction(getterOrOptions)
  if (onlyGetter) {
    getter = getterOrOptions
    setter = __DEV__
      ? () => {
          console.warn('Write operation failed: computed value is readonly')
        }
      : NOOP
  } else {
    getter = getterOrOptions.get
    setter = getterOrOptions.set
  }
  // new ComputedRefImpl
  const cRef = new ComputedRefImpl(getter, setter, onlyGetter || !setter, isSSR)
  if (__DEV__ && debugOptions && !isSSR) {
    cRef.effect.onTrack = debugOptions.onTrack
    cRef.effect.onTrigger = debugOptions.onTrigger
  }
  // 返回ComputedRefImpl实例
  return cRef as any
}

可以看到computed内部只是先处理getter和setter,然后new一个ComputedRefImpl返回,如果你知道ref API的实现,可以发现他们的实现有很多相同之处

ComputedRefImpl

// packages/reactivity/src/computed.ts
export class ComputedRefImpl<T> {
  public dep?: Dep = undefined // 存储effect的集合
  private _value!: T
  public readonly effect: ReactiveEffect<T>
  public readonly __v_isRef = true
  public readonly [ReactiveFlags.IS_READONLY]: boolean = false
  public _dirty = true // 是否需要重新更新value
  public _cacheable: boolean
  constructor(
    getter: ComputedGetter<T>,
    private readonly _setter: ComputedSetter<T>,
    isReadonly: boolean,
    isSSR: boolean
  ) {
    // 创建effect
    this.effect = new ReactiveEffect(getter, () => {
      // 调度器执行 重新赋值_dirty为true
      if (!this._dirty) {
        this._dirty = true
        // 触发effect
        triggerRefValue(this)
      }
    })
    // 用于区分effect是否是computed
    this.effect.computed = this
    this.effect.active = this._cacheable = !isSSR
    this[ReactiveFlags.IS_READONLY] = isReadonly
  }
  get value() {
    // the computed ref may get wrapped by other proxies e.g. readonly() #
    // computed ref可能被其他代理包装,例如readonly() #
    // 通过toRaw()获取原始值
    const self = toRaw(this)
    // 收集effect
    trackRefValue(self)
    // 如果是脏的,重新执行effect.run(),并且将_dirty设置为false
    if (self._dirty || !self._cacheable) {
      self._dirty = false
      // run()方法会执行getter方法 值会被缓存到self._value
      self._value = self.effect.run()!
    }
    return self._value
  }
  set value(newValue: T) {
    this._setter(newValue)
  }
}

可以看到ComputedRefImplget的get实现基本和ref的get相同(不熟悉ref实现的请看上一章),唯一的区别就是_dirty值的判断,这也是我们常说的computed会缓存value,那么computed是如何知道value需要更新呢?

可以看到在computed构造函数中,会建立一个getter与其内部响应式数据的关系,这跟我们组件更新函数跟响应式数据建立关系是一样的,所以与getter相关的响应式数据发生修改的时候,就会触发getter effect 对应的scheduler,这里会将_dirty设置为true并去执行收集到的effect(这里通常是执行get里收集到的函数更新的effect),然后就会去执行函数更新函数,里面会再次触发computed的get,此时dirty已经被置为true,就会重新执行getter获取新的值返回,并将该值缓存到_vlaue。

小结:

所以computed是有两层的响应式处理的,一层是computed.value和函数的effect之间的关系(与ref的实现相似),一层是computed的getter和响应式数据的关系。

注意:如果你足够细心就会发现函数更新函数的effect触发和computed getter的effect的触发之间可能存在顺序的问题。假如有一个响应式数据a不仅存在于getter中,还在函数render中早于getter被访问,此时a对应的dep中更新函数的effect就会早于getter的effect被收集,如果此时a被改变,就会先执行更新函数的effect,那么此时render函数访问到computed.value的时候就会发现_dirty依然是false,因为getter的effect还没有被执行,那么此时依然会是旧值。vue3中对此的处理是执行effects的时候会优先执行computed对应的effect(此前章节也有提到):

// packages/reactivity/src/effect.ts
export function triggerEffects(
  dep: Dep | ReactiveEffect[],
  debuggerEventExtraInfo?: DebuggerEventExtraInfo
) {
  // spread into array for stabilization
  const effects = isArray(dep) ? dep : [...dep]
  // computed的effect会先执行
  // 防止render获取computed值得时候_dirty还没有置为true
  for (const effect of effects) {
    if (effect.computed) {
      triggerEffect(effect, debuggerEventExtraInfo)
    }
  }
  for (const effect of effects) {
    if (!effect.computed) {
      triggerEffect(effect, debuggerEventExtraInfo)
    }
  }
}

watch

watch相对于computed要更简单一些,因为他只用建立getter与响应式数据之间的关系,在响应式数据变化时调用用户传过来的回调并将新旧值传入即可

// packages/runtime-core/src/apiWatch.ts
export function watch<T = any, Immediate extends Readonly<boolean> = false>(
  source: T | WatchSource<T>,
  cb: any,
  options?: WatchOptions<Immediate>
): WatchStopHandle {
  if (__DEV__ && !isFunction(cb)) {
    warn(...)
  }
  // watch 具体实现
  return doWatch(source as any, cb, options)
}
function doWatch(
  source: WatchSource | WatchSource[] | WatchEffect | object,
  cb: WatchCallback | null,
  { immediate, deep, flush, onTrack, onTrigger }: WatchOptions = EMPTY_OBJ
): WatchStopHandle {
  if (__DEV__ && !cb) {
    ...
  }
  const warnInvalidSource = (s: unknown) => {
    warn(...)
  }
  const instance =
    getCurrentScope() === currentInstance?.scope ? currentInstance : null
  // const instance = currentInstance
  let getter: () => any
  let forceTrigger = false
  let isMultiSource = false
  // 根据不同source 创建不同的getter函数
  // getter 函数与computed的getter函数作用类似
  if (isRef(source)) {
    getter = () => source.value
    forceTrigger = isShallow(source)
  } else if (isReactive(source)) {
    // source是reactive对象时 自动开启deep=true
    getter = () => source
    deep = true
  } else if (isArray(source)) {
    isMultiSource = true
    forceTrigger = source.some(s => isReactive(s) || isShallow(s))
    getter = () =>
      source.map(s => {
        if (isRef(s)) {
          return s.value
        } else if (isReactive(s)) {
          return traverse(s)
        } else if (isFunction(s)) {
          return callWithErrorHandling(s, instance, ErrorCodes.WATCH_GETTER)
        } else {
          __DEV__ && warnInvalidSource(s)
        }
      })
  } else if (isFunction(source)) {
    if (cb) {
      // getter with cb
      getter = () =>
        callWithErrorHandling(source, instance, ErrorCodes.WATCH_GETTER)
    } else {
      // no cb -> simple effect
      getter = () => {
        if (instance && instance.isUnmounted) {
          return
        }
        if (cleanup) {
          cleanup()
        }
        return callWithAsyncErrorHandling(
          source,
          instance,
          ErrorCodes.WATCH_CALLBACK,
          [onCleanup]
        )
      }
    }
  } else {
    getter = NOOP
    __DEV__ && warnInvalidSource(source)
  }
  //.x array mutation watch compat
  // 兼容vue
  if (__COMPAT__ && cb && !deep) {
    const baseGetter = getter
    getter = () => {
      const val = baseGetter()
      if (
        isArray(val) &&
        checkCompatEnabled(DeprecationTypes.WATCH_ARRAY, instance)
      ) {
        traverse(val)
      }
      return val
    }
  }
  // 深度监听
  if (cb && deep) {
    const baseGetter = getter
    // traverse会递归遍历对象的所有属性 以达到深度监听的目的
    getter = () => traverse(baseGetter())
  }
  let cleanup: () => void
  // watch回调的第三个参数 可以用此注册一个cleanup函数 会在下一次watch cb调用前执行
  // 常用于竞态问题的处理
  let onCleanup: OnCleanup = (fn: () => void) => {
    cleanup = effect.onStop = () => {
      callWithErrorHandling(fn, instance, ErrorCodes.WATCH_CLEANUP)
    }
  }
  // in SSR there is no need to setup an actual effect, and it should be noop
  // unless it's eager or sync flush
  let ssrCleanup: (() => void)[] | undefined
  if (__SSR__ && isInSSRComponentSetup) {
    // ssr处理 ...
  }
  // oldValue 声明 多个source监听则初始化为数组
  let oldValue: any = isMultiSource
    ? new Array((source as []).length).fill(INITIAL_WATCHER_VALUE)
    : INITIAL_WATCHER_VALUE
  // 调度器调用时执行
  const job: SchedulerJob = () => {
    if (!effect.active) {
      return
    }
    if (cb) {
      // watch(source, cb)
      // 获取newValue
      const newValue = effect.run()
      if (
        deep ||
        forceTrigger ||
        (isMultiSource
          ? (newValue as any[]).some((v, i) =>
              hasChanged(v, (oldValue as any[])[i])
            )
          : hasChanged(newValue, oldValue)) ||
        (__COMPAT__ &&
          isArray(newValue) &&
          isCompatEnabled(DeprecationTypes.WATCH_ARRAY, instance))
      ) {
        // cleanup before running cb again
        if (cleanup) {
          // 执行onCleanup传过来的函数
          cleanup()
        }
        // 调用cb 参数为newValue、oldValue、onCleanup
        callWithAsyncErrorHandling(cb, instance, ErrorCodes.WATCH_CALLBACK, [
          newValue,
          // pass undefined as the old value when it's changed for the first time
          oldValue === INITIAL_WATCHER_VALUE
            ? undefined
            : isMultiSource && oldValue[] === INITIAL_WATCHER_VALUE
            ? []
            : oldValue,
          onCleanup
        ])
        // 更新oldValue
        oldValue = newValue
      }
    } else {
      // watchEffect
      effect.run()
    }
  }
  // important: mark the job as a watcher callback so that scheduler knows
  // it is allowed to self-trigger (#)
  job.allowRecurse = !!cb
  let scheduler: EffectScheduler
  if (flush === 'sync') {
    // 同步更新 即每次响应式数据改变都会回调一次cb 通常不使用
    scheduler = job as any // the scheduler function gets called directly
  } else if (flush === 'post') {
    // job放入pendingPostFlushCbs队列中
    // pendingPostFlushCbs队列会在queue队列执行完毕后执行 函数更新effect通常会放在queue队列中
    // 所以pendingPostFlushCbs队列执行时组件已经更新完毕
    scheduler = () => queuePostRenderEffect(job, instance && instance.suspense)
  } else {
    // default: 'pre'
    job.pre = true
    if (instance) job.id = instance.uid
    // 默认异步更新 关于异步更新会和nextTick放在一起详细讲解
    scheduler = () => queueJob(job)
  }
  // 创建effect effect.run的时候建立effect与getter内响应式数据的关系
  const effect = new ReactiveEffect(getter, scheduler)
  if (__DEV__) {
    effect.onTrack = onTrack
    effect.onTrigger = onTrigger
  }
  // initial run
  if (cb) {
    if (immediate) {
      // 立马执行一次job
      job()
    } else {
      // 否则执行effect.run() 会执行getter 获取oldValue
      oldValue = effect.run()
    }
  } else if (flush === 'post') {
    queuePostRenderEffect(
      effect.run.bind(effect),
      instance && instance.suspense
    )
  } else {
    effect.run()
  }
  // 返回一个取消监听的函数
  const unwatch = () => {
    effect.stop()
    if (instance && instance.scope) {
      remove(instance.scope.effects!, effect)
    }
  }
  if (__SSR__ && ssrCleanup) ssrCleanup.push(unwatch)
  return unwatch
}